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Posts : 81
Join date : 2009-12-18
Age : 60
Location : Alexandria---Arsinoea Sarione Ptolemy

PostSubject: God and Goddess List   Tue Dec 22, 2009 8:14 pm


Means "Hidden One." She was an
Egyptian mother and/or fertility goddess. At the beginning of time aspects
of Amaunet merged with those of the goddess Neith. Among the Ogdoad, Amun
was her consort. She was regarded as a tutelary deity of the Egyptian Pharaohs,
and had a prominent part in the Pharaoh's accession ceremonies.

Ammut (Ammit)

"Devouress of the Dead." Demonic
goddess who attends the Judging of the Dead. She was depicted as having
the head of a crocodile, the torso of a lioness and the hindquarters of
a hippopotamus. She waited in the Judgement Hall of the Two Truths during
the Weighing of the Heart ceremony, and devoured those who were sinners
in life.


A goddess of Syrian origin. Anat
had a warlike character. She usually was represented as a woman holding
a shield and an axe.

Anentet ( Amenthes )

Egyptian goddess of the West.
The west was considered to be the Underworld.

Anuket ( Anqet, Anquet, Greek Anukis

Egyptian goddess who personified
the Nile as Nourisher of the Fields. She was mainly associated with the
lower cataracts near Aswan. Also was a protective deity of childbirth.
She was considered to be the daughter of Ra, Satis or Khnum. Depicted in
human form, bearing a crown topped with ostrich feathers. Her principal
sanctuary was at Elephantine. Her sacred animal was the gazelle.

Astarte (As-start-a)

A goddess of Syrian origin. Introduced
in Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. Was also known as The Queen of Heaven
and as such, her cult often overlapped with Isis' worshipers.


Egyptian wife of Herakhty (Horus).


Bastet ( Bast, Ubasti )

Egyptian sun, cat and of the home
goddess. As a sun goddess she represents the warm, life giving power of
the sun. A goddess of the home, pregnant women and of the domestic cat,
although she sometimes took on the war-like aspect of a lioness. Normally
said to be the daughter of the sun god Ra, but sometimes her father was
said to be Amun. Bastet was wife of Ptah and mother of the lion-god Mihos.
She was also associated with 'Eye of Ra', as such she was a instrument
of the sun god's vengeance. She was depicted as a cat or in human form
with the head of a cat, often holding the sistrum. Her cult was centered
on her sanctuary at Bubastis in the Delta region. A necropolis has been
found there, containing mummified cats.

Bat (Bata)

Cow goddess of fertility and primarily
a deity of Upper Egypt. She was depicted as a cow or in human form with
cow's ears and horns.


Egyptian goddess, a female version
of Bes.

Buto ( Edjo, Udjo, Wadjet, Wadjit

A tutelary goddess of Lower Egypt.



Egyptian goddess of the twentieth
nome of Lower Egypt.


Hathor (Hethert, Athyr)

Cow goddess. A goddess of love
and motherhood, Hathor was the daughter of Nut and Ra. In early Egyptian
mythology she was said to be the mother Horus, but was later replaced with
Isis. After being displaced, Hathor became a protectress of Horus. The
Greeks identified Hathor with Aphrodite.

Her name means "House (or Mansion)
of Horus," referring to her role as a sky goddess. The heavens were often
depicted as being a cow with stars on it, thus the "house." She was often
regarded as the mother of the Pharaoh, who called himself the "son of Hathor."
Since the Pharaoh was also considered to be the Living Horus, as the son
of Isis, it is plausible that the phrase "son of Hathor" came from when
Hathor was the mother of Hours.

The snake, the Egyptian rattle
known as the sistrum, and the papyrus reed often symbolized Hathor. Her
image could also be used to form the capitals of columns in Egyptian architecture.
Her principal sanctuary was at Dandarah, which may also be where Hathor
got her origins. At Dandarah, she was mainly worshipped in her role as
a goddess of fertility, women and childbirth. At Thebes she was regarded
as a goddess of the dead with the title of "Lady of the West." This associated
her with Ra on his descent below the western horizon and various deaths
related gods, such as Osiris and Anubis. She was depicted either as a cow
or in human form wearing a crown consisting of a sun disk held between
the horns of a cow.

Hat-mehyt (Hatmehit)

Fish goddess of Mendes in the
Delta and the consort of Banebdjedet. She was occasionally represented
as a woman with a fish on her head.


Goddess of infinity and a member
of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Heh


A scorpion goddess.
Heket (Heqet)

A goddess of childbirth and protector
of the dead. She is the daughter of Ra and is sometimes called the 'Eye
of Ra' and 'Mother of the gods'. She is shown as a frog, a symbol of life
and fertility (millions of them are born after the annual inundation of
the Nile), or as a woman with a frog's head. Women often wore amulets of
her during childbirth. She is regarded as the consort of Khnum.

Hemsut (Hemuset)

The Egyptian goddess of fate.

A frog-goddess of Antinoopolis.
She was a helper of women during childbirth. At Antinoopolis she was associated
with Khnum.


See the goddess Renenutet

An Egyptian cow goddess. The ancient
Egyptians referred to milk as 'the beer of Hesat.'



She was a goddess of Heliopolis
whose name means, "she comes who is great." She was a counterpart to the
creator god Atum. Normally depicted wearing a scarab beetle on her head.

Isis (Aset, Eset, Aat, Menkhet,
Hert, Ament, Menhet)

"Throne." Egyptian mother goddess.
Isis has many names: "Mistress of Magic,The Queen of Heaven (similar to
Astarte), The Great Lady, the God-Mother, lady of Re-a-nefer; Isis-Nebuut,
Lady of Sekhet; Lady of Besitet; Isis in Per Pakht, the Queen of Mesen;
Isis of Ta-at-nehepet; Isis, dweller in Netru; Isis, Lady of Hebet; Isis
in P-she-Hert; Isis, Lady of Khebt; Usert-Isis, Giver of Life, Lady of
Abaton, Lady of Philae and Lady of the Countries of the South."

Isis ruled over all matters concerning
mothering, life, and sorcery. She was the daughter of Geb and Nut, according
to the Heliopolitan genealogy, sister-wife of Osiris and, according to
most myths, the mother of Horus. As the personification of the throne,
Isis was an important source of the Pharaoh's power. Isis' Latin epithet
was Stella Maris, which means, "star of the sea." Isis was depicted in
human form, crowned either by a throne or by cow horns enclosing a sun
disk, occasionally a vulture was incorporated in her crown. She is also
depicted as a kite above the mummified body of Osiris. She was divinely
represented by the Ankh. Isis' cult was popular throughout Egypt, however,
the most important sanctuaries were at Giza and at Behbeit El-Hagar. During
the Late Period, Philae was her main cult-center. Later on, she had an
important cult in the Greco-Roman world, with sanctuaries at Delos and

Isis is one of the four great protector
goddesses, which included Bast, Nephyths, and Hathor. She guarded coffins
and the Canopic jars. In the origin myth of Ra and the world, Isis found
out Ra's name by enchanting a poisonous snake to bite him. When Ra was
close to dying, Isis told him that she could only heal him if she knew
Ra's true name. By knowing Ra's name, she then had power equal to him and
was then given all of her magical power and was forever known as the Divine

Isis and Nephyths were the divine
mourners for the dead (Osiris). Isis was the one who retrieved and reassembled
the body of Osiris after his murder and dismemberment by Set. In this way
she took on the role of a goddess of the dead and funeral rites. Isis impregnated
herself from the corpse and gave birth to Horus. She gave birth in secrecy
at Khemmis in the Nile delta and hid the child from Set in the papyrus
swamps. Horus later defeated Set and became the first ruler of a united
Egypt. Isis, as mother of Horus, was by extension regarded as the mother
and protectress of the Pharaohs. This relationship between Isis and Horus
may also have influenced the Christian conception of the relationship between
Mary and the infant Jesus Christ. There is a resemblance to the depiction
of the seated Isis holding or suckling the child Horus and the seated Mary
and the baby Jesus.



Goddess of darkness and a member
of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Kek.


Goddess who personified the purification
through water. Daughter of Anubis, Kebechet plays an important role in
the funeral cult. Her appearance is that of a snake.


Ma'at (Maat, Mayet)

"Straight": law and order. Egyptian
goddess of cosmic harmony, truth and justice. Ma'at was depicted as a woman
with an ostrich feather on her head, she was sometimes represented only
by the feather. Ma'at was closely associated with Ra from the beginning
and eventually became known as the 'daughter of Ra.' Thoth was sometimes
given as her consort. The Pharaohs were said to derive their authority
from Ma'at and claimed to uphold the cosmic order embodied in her. In the
funerary papyri of the New Kingdom it was Ma'at who sat in judgement at
the weighting of the heart ceremony in the Hall of the Two Truths. The
heart of the deceased was weighed against the image of Ma'at, often represented
simply by the ostrich feather. Her only know sanctuary was in Karnak.


The first deity to be mentioned
who is half-cat (domesticate). She appears to be associated with the protection
of the king's chambers. OR Panther Goddess Her ferocity prevails over snakes
and scorpions.

Mekhit (Mechit)

A lion goddess and consort of

Meret (Mert)

The Egyptian goddess of song and

Meretseger (Mertseger,Meresger)

"She who loves silence." Egyptian
cobra goddess and protective deity of the Theban necropolis. She was believed
to live on a mountain overlooking the Valley of the Kings. Worshiped by
the workers at the necropolis, she was believed to poison or blind anyone
who committed a crime. Supposedly, this belief was intended to reinforce
the taboo against desecrating or robbing the tombs. She was depicted as
a coiled cobra or as a cobra with the head of a woman and a single human
arm. Her cult died out when the Theban necropolis was abandoned during
the XXI Dynasty.


Egyptian vulture goddess and chief
goddess of Thebes. Also a mother goddess occasionally referenced to as
the queen of all gods. She was depicted in the form of a vulture or in
a human form with a vulture headdress and the combined crowns of Upper
and Lower Egypt. She was usually dressed in a bright red or blue gown.
In Thebes she replaced Amaunet as the consort of the sun god Amun. With
their adoptive son Khonsu, the two formed the Theban triad. Her principal
sanctuary was in Thebes.



Goddess of the primordial abyss
and member of the Ogdoad. Her consort was Nun.


A goddess whose name means "mistress
of the offering." She is a feminine counterpart of the male creative principle
of Atum. She supposedly was "namely his Hand with which he brought about
the ejaculation that brought the cosmos into being." A goddess of Heliopolis.

Neith (Neit)

Egyptian creator goddess and of
war, the hunt and domestic arts. Her symbol was a shield bearing crossed
arrows. Said to be a self-begotten virgin. She later came to be identified
as the consort of Set and the mother of the crocodile god Sobek. Her principal
sanctuary was at Sais in the Nile Delta, where she originally developed
as a local goddess. After rising to national prominence, a sanctuary was
dedicated to her in Memphis. In the Esna cosmology, Neith was said to have
emerged from the primeval waters to create the world, subsequently following
the Nile north to the delta where she founded Sais. Depicted in the form
of a woman wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt and bearing a shield with
crossed arrows.

Nekhbet (Nekhebet, Nechbet)

"She of Nekhbet." Egyptian vulture
and tutelary goddess of Upper Egypt. She was also a protective goddess
of childbirth who was depicted as the nurse of the future monarch during
his infancy. In her capacity as protectress of the infant monarch she was
known as the "Great White Cow of Nekheb." She was usually depicted as a
vulture wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt and holding the eternity
symbols in her talons. Her principal sanctuary was in Nekheb (El Kab) in
Upper Egypt.

Nephthys (Greek form; Egyptian
Neb-hut, Nebthet)

"Mistress/Lady of the House."
Egyptian goddess of the dead and daughter of Geb and Nut. Nephthys was
the sister of Isis, Osiris and Set. She was the consort of Set until Set
killed Osiris. According to one tradition, she was also the mother of Anubis
by Osiris. Nephthys' principal sanctuary was in Heliopolis. Along with
Isis, she was one of the guardians of the corpse of Osiris. She is shown
in human form wearing a crown in the form of the hieroglyph for house.
Sometimes depicted as a kite guarding the funeral bier of Osiris.


An Egyptian corn goddess. She
is the female counterpart of the god Neper.

Nut (Neuth, Nuit)

Egyptian goddess of the sky and
the heavens. Daughter of Shu and Tefnut, in the Heliopolitan genealogy.
Originally just a mother goddess who had numerous children. The hieroglyph
of her name is thought to be a womb although a water pot represented the
womb. She was typically depicted as a woman with her elongated and naked
body arching above Shu and the earth god Geb to form the heavens. Sometimes
she appeared in the form of a cow whose body forms the sky and heavens.
Nut was the barrier separating the forces of Chaos form the ordered cosmos
in this world. Her fingers and toes were believed to touch the four cardinal
points or directions. The sun god Ra was to be reborn from her vagina each
morning. Nut was also a goddess of the dead, and the Pharaoh was said to
enter her body after death, from which he would later be resurrected. Her
principal sanctuary was in Heliopolis.


Pachet (Pakhet)

Lioness Goddess of the Eastern
Desert and a night huntress.


Qadesh (Qetesh)

A goddess of Syrian origin. Often
represented as a woman standing on a lion's back.


Renenutet (Ernutet, Renenet)

Egyptian cobra goddess. Depicted
either as a hooded cobra or in human form with the head of a cobra. Her
name seems to have the meaning of nurturing or raisin a child, and she
was both a goddess associated with motherhood and the tutelary deity of
the Pharaoh. Her gaze was said to have the power to vanquish all enemies
and also to ensure the fertility of the crops and the bounty of the harvest.
She was associated with the magical properties believed to inhere in the
linen bandages that wrapped the dead and was known at Edfu as the 'mistress
of the robes.' She had an important cult center in the fertile Faiyum region,
where she was closely associated with the local crocodile god Sobek. In
the Greco-Roman period she was worshipped as the goddess Hermouthis, in
which form she came to be combined with Isis.


The Egyptian goddess of youth
and springtime.


An Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.



Goddess of the inundation of the
Nile and fertility

Satis (Greek form, also Sati; Egyptian
Satjit or Satet)

An Egyptian goddess whose primary
role was that of a guardian of Egypt's southern (Nubian) frontier and killing
the enemies of the Pharaoh with her arrows. As 'Queen of Elephantine' she
figures as the consort of Khnum and the mother of Anuket, the three sometimes
being referred to as the 'Elephantine's triad.' Depicted in human form
wearing the tall conical white crown of Upper Egypt bounded on either side
by plumes or antelope horns, holding a scepter and the Ankh (life) symbol.
She had a major sanctuary on the island of Sahel near Elephantine (Aswan).
She was also associated with the annual inundation of the Nile.

Sekhmet (Sachmet, Sakhmet)

"The Powerful One." Egyptian lioness
goddess, daughter of Ra. In Memphis she formed part of the Memphite triad
together with Ptah as her consort and Nefertum (otherwise the son of Bastet)
as her son. Depicted as a lioness or in a human form with the head of a
lioness. She was generally shown crowned by the solar disk, holding the
Ankh (life) symbol or a scepter in the shape of a papyrus reed. In Thebes
Sekhmet came to be combined with Mut, the consort of the Theban sun god
Amun. She had a warlike aspect and was said to breathe fire at the enemies
of the Pharaoh. Like the goddess Hathor, Sekhmet could become the 'eye
of Ra,' an agent of the sun god's punishment. She was believed to be the
bearer of plague and pestilence, but in a more benign aspect she was called
upon in spells and amulets to ward of disease.

Selkis (Selkit, Selket, Selkhet,

A scorpion-goddess who was identified
with the scorching heat of the sun. A protector goddesses, she guarded
coffins and Canopic jars. Sometimes shown as a woman with a scorpion on
her head.


A cow goddess.
Serket (Selket, Selkis, Selchis,
Selquet; Egyptian Serket-hetyt)

"She who causes the throat to
breathe." Egyptian scorpion goddess. Depicted in human form with a scorpion-shaped
headdress or with a scorpion body and a human head. She was an early tutelary
deity of the Egyptian monarchs. Serket was associated with mortuary rites
and helped guard the Canopic jars in which the viscera of the dead were
placed. From this association she came to be a tutelary goddess of the
dead. She was called upon in Egyptian magic to advert venomous bites and

Seshat (Sesat, Sesheta)

The goddess of writing; the divine
keeper of royal annals. Was represented as a woman.


An Egyptian goddess of destiny.
Sothis (Greek form; Egyptian Sopdet)

Egyptian goddess who personified
the Dog Star, Sirius. The appearance of Sirius at dawn in July (called
the helical rising) heralds the annual inundation of the Nile. She naturally
became associated with fertility and prosperity resulting from the annual
floods. Depicted in human form, wearing the tall conical white crown of
Upper Egypt, surmounted by a star. In a forth century BC papyrus, Isis
identifies herself with Sothis as she laments the death of Osiris and vows
to follow him in his manifestation as the constellation Orion.



An ancient Egyptian goddess. She
was the consort of Horus when he was Har-wer ("Horus the Elder").

Tawret (Taueret, Taurt, Apet, Opet;
Greek Thoueris, Thoeris, Toeris)

"The Great One." Egyptian hippopotamus
goddess and protective deity of childbirth, also protectress of rebirth
into the afterlife. She was depicted with the head of a hippopotamus, the
legs and arms of a lion, the tail of a crocodile, human breasts, and a
swollen belly. This appearance was meant to frighten off any spirits that
might be harmful to the child. She was often depicted holding the Sa, amulet
symbolizing protection. As a protective deity of childbirth, she was often
depicted in the company of the dwarf god Bes, who ad a similar function.
Taweret was the most popular among ordinary Egyptians as a protectress.
Pregnant women commonly wore amulets bearing the goddess' image.

Tefnut (Tefnet, Tefenet; Greek

Primeval Egyptian goddess personifying
moisture, particularly in the forms of dew, rains and mist. According to
the Heolopolitan cosmology, she was the daughter of Atum (sun), sister-wife
of Shu (air) and the mother of Geb (earth) and Nut (sky). Tefnut could
take on the role of the 'eye of Ra' (Ra being another form of her sun god
father), in which case she was depicted as a lioness or in human form with
the head of a lioness. She could also be depicted as a snake coiled about
a scepter. In the Pyramid Texts she was said to create pure water from
her vagina. Her principal sanctuary was at Heliopolis. Tefnut and Shu were
also worshipped as a pair of lions at Leontopolis in the Nile delta.


The Egyptian goddess of beer.



An Egyptian rabbit-goddess.


Wadjet (Buto, Uajyt, Uto)

Cobra and tutelary goddess of
Lower Egypt.


The Egyptian protector goddess
of the young.



The Egyptian goddess of Hermonthis.
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Join date : 2009-12-18
Age : 60
Location : Alexandria---Arsinoea Sarione Ptolemy

PostSubject: God and Goddess List   Tue Dec 22, 2009 8:20 pm


The double lion god, guardian
of the sunrise and sunset. Guardian of the peaks that supported the sky.


Egyptian chthonic underworld god

"The Hidden One." An Egyptian
sky god who evolved into a sun god and the head of the Egyptian pantheon.
Originally a local god of Khmun and then of Thebes. Amun's cult rose in
prominence as Thebes rose in status. In the New Kingdom he became combined
with the Heliopolitan sun god Ra as Amun-Ra, in which form he was the "king
of the gods" and the tutelary deity of the Pharaohs. The Pharaohs, who
had been considered "sons of Ra", thus came to be regarded as incarnations
of Amun-Ra. Amun took on the role of a primeval deity and creator in the
cosmology of the New Kingdom, creating earth and sky out of his thought.
By Dynasty XVIII Amun was the "King of the Gods." Karnak was his most famous
temple. The temple is the largest religious structure ever built by man.
Amun sometimes appears as a protector of any devotee in need.

Amun was a member of the Ogdoad,
paired with the goddess Amaunet. They represented hidden power. He was
also a member of the Theban triad, where he was the husband of Mut and
adoptive father of Khons. Amun was depicted in human form, with blue skin
and either the head of a bearded man or a ram's head with curved horns.
He wore a crown composed of a modius surmounted by two tall feather plumes.
He was sometimes depicted in ithyphallic form with an oversized erect penis.
His true appearance was considered beyond human understanding. Amun was
said to be "hidden of aspect, mysterious of form", invisible yet omnipresent
throughout the cosmos. His sacred animals were the ram and the goose. His
primary sanctuaries were at Karnak and Luxor near Thebes. Amun and his
influential Theban priests suffered a temporary eclipse during the reign
of Akhenaten, who tried to impose a monotheistic worship of Aten. The cult
of Amun revived soon after Akhenaten's death. It was not until the sack
of Thebes by the Assyrians in 663 BC that Amun was reduced to mere local
importance. As Ammon, however, he had an oracle at the Siwa Oasis in the
western desert that remained prominent at least until the time of Alexander
the Great, who visited the oracle.

Amun-Re ( Amon-Ra )

A combination of Amun and Ra worshipped
in later Egyptian history. Under this name, the Theban god Amun became
the national god of Egypt. Pharaohs considered themselves to be sons of
Amun-Ra. Displaced during Akhenaten's rule, he was restored to full power

Andjety ( Anezti, Anedjti )

Egyptian underworld god. Andjety
was responsible for the rebirth of the individual in the afterlife. He
wore a high conical crown surmounted by two feather plumes, and bore the
crook and flail. Andjety was associated with Osiris, whose symbols were
also the crook and flail, as well as the atef crown, which resembled that
worn by Andjety. His worship originated in the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt.
Both Osiris and him had their main cult center at Busiris.

Anezti ( Anedjti )

A god of the ninth Nome of Lower

Anhur ( Anhert, Anhuret, Greek
Onuris )

Egyptian warrior and hunter god.
His consort was the lion goddess Mekhit. He was depicted as a bearded warrior
wearing a long robe and a headdress with four tall plumes, often bearing
a spear. Mekhit is often shown accompanying him. Anhur was the champion
of Egypt who hunted and slew the enemies of Ra. Occasionally equated with
the god Shu and with Ares by the Ptolemaic Greeks. Anhur was the Divine
Huntsman. His cult originated in the Upper Egyptian city of Thinis (This),
near Abydos, but his main cult center was at Sebennytos in the Nile Delta.


An Egyptian guardian deity. Depicted
as a falcon or with a falcon's head, often standing on a crescent-shaped

Anubis (Greek; Egyptian: Anup)

An Egyptian god of the dead. Also
known as Khenty-Imentiu - "Chief of the Westerners" - a reference to the
belief that the realm of the dead lay to the west and a association with
the setting sun and the Egyptian custom of building cemeteries on the west
bank of the Nile. He was represented as a black jackal/dog or as a man
with the head of a jackal/dog. His father was normally given as Ra, while
is mother was sometimes Nephthys or Isis.

After the early period of the Old
Kingdom, he was replaced by Osiris as god of the dead and was demoted to
a supporting role as a god of the funeral cult and the care of the dead.
His black color represented the color of human corpses after they had undergone
the embalming process. In the Book of the Dead, he was depicted as presiding
over the weighing of the heart of the deceased, in the Hall of the Two
Truths. As god of the care of the dead, he was referred to as the "conductor
of souls." Because of this title the Greeks later identified him with Hermes.
The two were merged to form the deity Hermanubis. Anubis' principal sanctuary
was at the necropolis in Memphis as well as other cities.


A Nubian Lion god.
Apis ( Greek form; Egyptian Hapi,

Egyptian bull god of Memphis.
Originally a form the god Hapi, he was later regarded as the living embodiment
of the god Ptah. Apis was supposedly conceived after a flash of lightning
struck Isis. When he, the Apis Bull, died it was said that he became/entered
the god Osiris. Based on distinguishing marks, a black and white bull was
selected to represent Apis. It must be all black save for a white triangular
patch on the forehead. Omens were derived by it's behavior. After a Apis
bull died, it was mummified and buried with much ceremony at Sakkarah in
an underground tomb known to the Greeks as the Serapeum, afterwards, his
priests searched for a calf with the appropriate markings which indicated
that it was his successor. The Pharaohs were closely associated with the
Apis bull. They partook of it's strength and fertility in life and aided
in their ascent to the sun god after death. The Apis bull was depicted
with the solar disk between its horns and also bearing the uraeus (cobra
amulet) on its head.

Apophis ( Apepi, Apep )

Egyptian snake god and personified
darkness, evil and the forces of chaos. Apophis was the eternal enemy of
Ra and cosmic order. Each night he did battle with Ra on his journey through
the underworld on the barque of the sun, and each night Ra triumphed to
be reborn at dawn in the east. Often the god Set or the serpent Mehen was
the one who defended Ra and the solar barque from Apophis. During an eclipse
it was said that Apophis had gained a temporary victory however, Ra always
triumphed in the end. In one account, it was said that Ra gained a permanent
victory over Apophis when he cut up and burned Apophis' body.


Name of the god who gained its
prominence during the reign of Akhenaten. Akhenaten abolished the traditional
cults of Egypt in favor of the Aten. A sun with multiple arms holding/offering
Ankh, was the Aten's representation. This was the first monotheistic cult
in the world.


The primeval sun god and creator
of the world. He represents the setting sun. Later he was combined with
Re as the god Atum-Re. According to the myths, he was the first substance
(a hill) who emerged from the primeval waters. Atum created the deities
Shu and Tefnut from his spittle or from his semen in the act of masturbation.

His main cult center was at Heliopolis,
where he was the head of the Ennead cult. The black bull Mnewer, who bore
the sun disk and uraeus between its horns, was his representation. As the
father of the pharaoh, he played an important part in the coronation rites.
Atum was shown as old man symbolizing the setting sun, a scarab, a snake,
and a mangust (pharaoh hat). His sacred animals were the bull, the snake,
lizard, lion and ichneumon.

In the Memphite creation myth Atum
was conceived in the heart of Ptah and was created by his word. "He who
completes, or perfects."



Early ram god of Mendes in Lower
Egypt. He was a fertility deity whom women worshipped in the hope that
he would aid them in conceiving children.


Egyptian demonic god. Depicted
as a baboon with an erect penis. Babi was both a dangerous god, but was
also associated with sexual prowess in the afterlife. As a demonic god
he was said to live on human entrails. He is mentioned in the Books of
the Dead where he attends the ceremony of the Weighing of the Heart in
the Hall of the Two Truths. He waits with Ammut to devour the souls of
those found unworthy. His penis was depicted being employed as the mast
of the underworld ferry.

Banebdjedet ( Ba Neb Tetet, Banebdedet,
Baneb Djedet, Banaded )

Ram god of Lower Egypt. His consort
was the fish goddess Hatmehyt. He was the father of Harpokrates. In one
tradition, he interceded in the contest between Horus and Set for the Egyptian
throne. Banebdejedet advised the gods to consult the goddess Neith. Neith
advised the gods to award the throne to Horus. In this account, he was
said to reside on the island of Seheil near the first cataract of the Nile
at Aswan, but generally his cult was centered on Mendes in the Nile Delta.
He was depicted with the head of a ram.


"That Soul." Minor Egyptian god
of malevolent aspect.


Egyptian god in the form of a
crouching falcon. Worshipped at Behdet (Edfu), he later was identified
as a local form of the god Horus.


A bird-like sun god. Linked with
Atum, the better known sun god of Heliopolis. He was said to have been
self-created from the primeval ocean.

Bes (Bisu)

Dwarf god who guarded against
evil spirits and misfortune. Unlike the other Egyptian deities, who were
usually depicted in profile, Bes was depicted full face. He was ugly and
grotesque in appearance, with a large head, a protruding tongue, bowlegs
and a bushy tail. He bore a plumed crown and wore the skin of a lion or
panther. Despite his appearance, he was a beneficent deity and his appearance
was meant to scare off evil spirits. He bore swords and knives to ward
off evil spirits, as well as musical instruments, to create a din to frighten
them off. Bes aided the goddess Taweret in childbirth. He was originally
the protective deity of the royal house of Egypt, but became a popular
household deity throughout Egypt.


An aspect of Ra-Atum in the form
of a phoenix. Bennu was the patron of the reckoning of time and carrier
of eternal light from the abode of the gods to the world of men.


Egyptian holy bull of Hermonthis
and the living image of the god Montu. He had a white body and a black


Chenti-cheti ( Greek Chentechtai

Originally an Egyptian crocodile
god, he later took on the form of a falcon.

Chenti-irti ( Machenti-irti )

Falcon-god of law and order identified
with Horus.


Ram god and ferryman of the dead.
His cult was centered on Letopolis.

Chnum ( Chnumu )

Ram god and protector of the source
of the Nile. He was said to fashion children out of clay and then place
them in the mother's womb. Depicted as a human with a ram's head.


Egyptian moon god; the son of
Amun and Mut. Normally depicted as a young man in the posture of a mummy.

Chontamenti ( Chonti-amentiu )

A god of the dead and the land
of the west. He was represented as a crouching dog/jackal.


Djebauti (Zebauti)

A local god

The Egyptian god of toiletry.
Duamutef (Tuamutef)

God of the deceased's stomach


Geb (Keb, Seb)

Earth god. It is quite rare to
find a ancient religion with the earth personified in the form of a man.
Geb was the son of Shu and Tefnut and Brother-consort of the sky goddess
Nut. Father of Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Geb was generally depicted
lying on his back, usually wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, with the naked
body of Nut arched above him. As such, he was often shown with an erect
penis pointing upward toward Nut. Occasionally the air god Shu was shown
standing on the body of Geb and supporting Nut, supposedly separating her
from Geb. In any other case he is shown with the head of a goose. He as
"the Great Cackler," he was represented as a goose. Also as "The Great
Cackler" he was said to have laid the egg from which the sun was hatched.

Equated as the third divine king
of earth. His skin was often green, indicative his role as a god of vegetation
and fertility. Geb was also said to imprison the souls of the dead, preventing
them from passing on to the afterlife. The laughter of Geb was said to
cause earthquakes. The goose was his sacred animal and his symbol in Egyptian
hieroglyphics. In his honor, the royal throne of Egypt was occasionally
known as the 'throne of Geb.'



God of the west and the western
desert. Because the entrance to the underworld was in the western desert,
he plays a part in the death cult. He is shown as a human with a hieroglyph
that represents the west on his head.

Hapi (Hapy, Hap, Hep)

God of the Nile. Mostly associated
with the annual floods, the inundation (which was responsible for the fertility
of the land adjacent to the river). Although he had no specific cult centers,
Hapi was believed to live in caves near the Nile cataracts. His court included
a retinue of crocodile-gods and a harem of frog-goddesses. Depicted in
human form with a large belly, female breasts (which indicated his powers
of nourishment), a beard, colored blue or green, and a clump of aquatic
plants. He often bore a tray of produce symbolizing the abundance and prosperity
brought by the Nile floods.

Harakhti (Harachte)

God of the morning sun. His name
means 'Horus of the Horizon.' He is a manifestation of Horus. The Pharaoh
was supposedly born on the eastern horizon as Harakhti and to rule over
the eastern and western horizon in that form. In Heliopolis he combined
with Re and was worshipped as Re-Harakhti. He was depicted in the form
of a falcon.

Harendotes (Egyptian Har-nedj-itef)

A guardian god and a manifestation
of Horus. In this form, he guards Osiris in the underworld and is called
'Horus the savior of his father.' Har-nedj-itef also protects the dead
and is portrayed as a falcon on sarcophagi.

Harmachis (Egyptian Har-em-akhet)

"Horus upon the Horizon" also
known as Her-Akhety, "Horus of the Two Horizons." A manifestation of Horus
where he figures as a sun god (identified with Re-Her-Akhety). Later the
sphinx of Giza represented "Horus of the Morning Sun" because it/he looked
toward the eastern horizon.


Horus' name, as the falcon-god
'with the two eyes,' which represented the sun and the moon. Harmerti was
also worshipped as the hero that restrains monsters.

Haroeris (Egyptian Har-wer)

"The Elder Horus." Horus, when
he reaches maturity, and avenges his father, Osiris, against his enemy,
Seth. In this form, Horus defeats Seth and seizes the throne of Egypt.

In Noebt, (Kom Ombo) in Upper Egypt,
Har-wer was regarded as the son of the god Re and was identical with the
sky god Shu. He is depicted in the form of a falcon.

Harpokrates (Harpocrates, Egyptian

"Horus the Child." This was Horus
as a young boy, not Horus as an adult. He is portrayed as a naked child
with a finger in his mouth, sitting on a lotus flower or on the knee of
his mother Isis. He was invoked to ward off dangerous creatures. He was
also a vegetation god and was portrayed with a jar or a horn of plenty.

He became very popular during the
Roman Empire and his cult was expanded substantially. Statuettes of Har-pa-khered
from the Greco-Roman period show him riding on a goose or a ram.

Harsiesis (Harsiese, Egyptian Har-sa-iset)

This was Horus as the son of Isis
and a guardian deity. In the Osiris-myth he was born when Isis impregnated
herself by her deceased husband, Osiris. Isis protects Horus as a child.
The Pyramid texts state that Har-sa-iset performed the rite of the 'opening
of the mouth' on the dead pharaoh, ensuring that the pharaoh would have
the use of his faculties in the afterlife.

Harsomtus (Egyptian Har-mau)

"Horus the Uniter." Horus when
he achieves the uniting of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.


God of infinity and a member of
the Ogdoad. His consort was Hauhet.


An Egyptian falcon god.
Herishef (Arsaphes)

A ram-headed god who originated
in Heracleopolis.

Horus (Egyptian Har or Hor)

Egyptian sky god; son of Isis
and the dead Osiris. Usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with
the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. He
was born at Khemmis in the Nile Delta, and Isis hid him in the papyrus
marshes to protect him against Set, his father's murderer.

Horus later avenged the death of
his father against Set. Horus lost his left eye (the moon) in the contest
between the two. Horus was identified with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper
Egypt in this battle, which lasted eighty years. The gods judged Horus
to be the winner, and Set was either killed or castrated. The consequence
of Horus's victory was the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian
Pharaoh was believed to be an incarnation of Horus, and the name of Horus
formed part of his name. The Pharaoh was said to become Horus after death.
Set restored the eye he had torn from Horus, but Horus gave it instead
to Osiris. The image of the "eye of Horus", a human eye combined with the
cheek markings of a falcon, became a powerful amulet among the Egyptians.

Among the various manifestations
of Horus were:

Harpokrates (Heru-Pa-Khret, Harpakhrad):

"Horus the child." This refers
to his birth and secret rearing by Isis. In this form he is often depicted
as a naked child seated on Isis's lap.

Haroeris (Har Wer):

"Horus the elder." In this form
Horus battled against Set.

Harakhte (Harakhti, Heraktes):

"Horus of the horizon." Horus
at Heliopolis, linked with Ra in the sun cult. In this form he is associated
with the rising and setting sun. He was pictured as a falcon, or as a sphinx
with the body of a lion. The Great Sphinx of Giza is an example of "Horus
in/of the Horizon."

Harendotes (Har-nedj-itef, Har-End-Yotef):

"Horus the savior of his father."
A reference to the avenging of his father's murder.

Harmachis (Heru-Em-Akhet, Harmakis):

"Horus in the horizon." Horus
as symbol of resurrection, linked with the setting sun.

Harsiesis (Harsiese, Har-si-Ese,

"Horus, son of Isis." Horus as
a baby/child

Harsomtus (Har-mau):

"Horus the Uniter." This is a
reference to his role in uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hor Behdetite (Behedti):

"Horus of Behdet." Originally
a local form of Horus, at Behdet. In this form he symbolized by the winged
solar disk.


The creating word of the sun-god
of Heliopolis and a god of authority. With Sia Hu forms a primeval pair,
both born from a drop of blood from the penis of Ra (sometimes by the tears
of Ra), and together the personify the wisdom and insight of the sun-god.
They also accompany him on his solar barque and help the bring order in


A protective deity of the underworld.
Imhotep (Amenhotep, Amenhotep-Son-of-Hapu)

Imhotep was the chief minister
of the Pharaoh Djoser. He was the architect of the Step Pyramid, which
was the first of the Egyptian Pyramids. Imhotep was latter raised to the
level of a god (deified). As a god he was responsible with medicine and
learning. Normally depicted as a seated man holding an open papyrus.

Imsety (Amset, Mestha)

God of the deceased's liver, he
was protected by Isis; One of the Four Sons of Horus.


Joh (Jah)

An Egyptian god of the moon.

Kebechsenef (Kebehsenuf, Qebshenuf,

A Son of Horus. He protected the
Canopic jar where the viscera of the lower body where kept after mummification.


God of darkness and a member of
the Ogdoad. His consort was Kauket.

Kepra (Kheper, Khepera, Khepris,
Chepre, Chepri)

An Egyptian sun god who appeared
often in the form of a scarab or a dung beetle and often as a beetle within
the sun disk. He was a manifestation of the god Ra rising in the east at
dawn. This association supposedly resulted for the similarity between the
scarab rolling a ball of dung along the ground and Ra rolling the sun across
the sky. Kepra was the one who pushed the sun up from the underworld to
be reborn at dawn. In the Heliopolitan cosmology he appeared as a primordial
sun god who created himself out of the earth. His principal cult center
was at Heliopolis.


A scarab headed god. The Egyptians
believed that Khepri pushed the sun across the sky in much the same fashion
that a dung beetle (scarab) pushed a ball of dung across the ground.

Kherty (Cherti)

"Lower One." Ram god of the underworld
and ferryman of the dead. In the Pyramid Texts Kherty was said to be a
threat to the Pharaoh, who had to be defended by Ra himself. However, as
an earth-god, he also acts as a guardian of the Pharaoh's tomb. Letopolis,
northwest of Memphis, was Kherty's main cult center. He was shown as a
man with the head of a ram or as a ram.

Khnum (Khnemu)

"To Create." Egyptian ram god.
Khnum was credited with creating life on a potter's wheel at the behest
of the other gods. He was also said to control the annual inundation of
the Nile, although the god Hapi physically generates the inundation. The
goddesses Satis and Anuket assisted him in their supervisory role. His
major cult center was on the Elephantine Island near the first cataract
of the Nile (Near modern Aswan) where mummified rams sacred to Khnum have
been found. He also had an important cult center at Esna, to the north
of the first cataract. He was usually depicted inhuman form with a ram's
head - the horns extending horizontally on either side of the head - often
before a potter's wheel on which a naked human was being fashioned.

Khonsu (Khons, Khensu, Chons)

"Wanderer." Egyptian moon god.
Son of Amun and Mut (occasionally the son of Sekhmet) with whom he forms
the triad of gods revered in Thebes. Depicted in human form, sometimes
with the head of a hawk, clothed in a tight-fitting robe and wearing a
skullcap topped by the crescent of the new moon subtending the disk of
the full moon. His head was shaven except for the side-lock worn by Egyptian
children, signifying his role as Khnosu-pa-khered - "Khonsu the child."
His principal sanctuary was in Thebes, where he figured prominently as
a member of the Theban triad. He also had a temple in Karnak. His sacred
animal was the baboon, considered a lunar animal by the Egyptians.


The Egyptian god of Kusae.


Maahes (Mihos, Miysis)

A obscure lion god who may be
of foreign origin. Maahes ("True Before Her") was worshipped in Bubastis,
Leontopolis, and especially Upper Egypt. He is regarded in later times
to be the son of Bastet and Ptah in Memphis. He is sometimes regarded as
a son of the triad in Memphis with Nefertem and occasionally Imhotep. Maahes
punished the transgressors of Ma'at. His protection was invoked over the
innocent. He was represented as either a lion or a man with a lion's head
and a knife.

Mahes (Miysis)

The Egyptian personification of
the summer heat. Known as "Lord of the massacre." He was principally worshipped
in the area of the Nile Delta. He is represented as a lion or a man with
a lion's head.


An Egyptian serpent god. He defends
the solar barque during Ra's nightly passage through the underworld. Usually
shown as a snake coiled about the barque.


Lion-god, son of Bastet.

Chief of Heaven. A primeval god
of Coptos. In early times he was a sky-god whose symbol was a thunderbolt.
Also seen as a rain god that promoted fertility of nature, such as grain.
Later he was revered as a fertility god who bestowed sexual powers on men.
Normally represented as a human holding a flagellum.

Montu (Mont, Mentu, Methu; Greek

Falcon-headed war god of Upper
Egypt. His cult developed at Thebes and spread throughout Egypt under the
Theban kings, who expanded the country's borders beginning around 2000
BC. He was the tutelary god of the Theban monarchs, and brought them victory
in war. Depicted in human form with the head of a falcon, crowned with
the solar disk, the uraeus cobra and two tall plumes, His sacred animal
was a white bull with a black face, known as Buchis. After death, the bulls
were buried in a necropolis near Hermothis (Armant) known as the Bucheum.
His cult centers included Medu (Medamud), Karnak and Hermothis.


Nefertum (Nefertem; Greek Nepthemis)

Egyptian god of the primordial
lotus blossom . A personification of the blue lotus of which the sun god
Ra emerged. In the Pyramid Texts, he was described as the 'lotus blossom
on the nose of Ra.' He was usually depicted in human form wearing a headdress
topped by a lotus blossom. He could also be depicted with a lion's head
when given as the child of the Memphite lion goddess Sekhmet out of her
union with Ptah. His major cult center was in Memphis. In Buto, in the
Nile Delta region, Nefertum was held to be the child of the cobra goddess
Wadjet. Elsewhere his mother was called the cat goddess Bastet.

Nehebkau (Nehebu-Kau, Nehebkhau)

Egyptian snake god of the underworld.
Represented either as a serpent with human arms and legs or with a man's
body, holding the eye of Horus. In the Pyramid Texts, he was said to be
the son of the scorpion goddess Serket. Another tradition made him the
son of the earth god Geb and the harvest goddess Renenutet. According to
legend, he was tamed by the sun god Ra and thenceforth acted as the god's
servant, riding with him in the sun barque. His name was invoked in spells
providing protection against snake bites and scorpion stings. Nehebkau
protected the dead Pharaoh in the afterlife.

Nenun (Nenwen)

An Egyptian falcon-god.

An Egyptian god of grain. Neper
was mostly associated with barley and emmer wheat.

Nun (Nu)

Egyptian god who personified the
swirling primeval waters/chaos from which the cosmic order was produced.
In the beginning there was only Nun. Consort of Naunet and a member of
the Ogdoad. He was referred to as the 'father of the gods,' which referred
to his primacy in the time rather than any literal parentage. Nun played
no part in Egyptian religion rituals and had no temples dedicated to him.
Nun was symbolized by the sacred lakes, which were associated with some
temples, such as Karnak and Dendara. Depicted inhuman form holding the
solar barque of Ra above his head.


Osiris (Usire)

Egyptian god of the underworld
and of vegetation. Son of Nut and Geb and brother of Nephthys, Set and
brother-husband to Isis. His birthplace was said to be Rosetau in the necropolis
west of Memphis. Osiris was depicted in human form wrapped up as a mummy,
holding the crook and flail. He was often depicted with green skin, alluding
to his role as a god of vegetation. He wore a crown known as the 'atef,'
composed of the tall conical whittle crown of Upper Egypt with red plumes
on each side. Osiris had many cult centers, but the most important were
at Abydos (Ibdju) in Upper Egypt, where the god's legend was reenacted
in an annual festival and at Busirs (Djedu) in the Nile delta.



The Egyptian god of retaliation.

An Egyptian crocodile-god.

Egyptian creator god. Also a god
of artisans, designers, builders, metal workers, architects and masons,
whose skills he was said to have created. He was the one who created the
barque for the dead to sail in. His major cult center was at Memphis. In
Memphis and Thebes his consort was the lioness goddess Sekhmet. Together
with Sekhmet's son Nefertum, they formed the 'Memphite triad.' His sacred
animal was the bull. The Apis bull in Memphis, which acted as an intermediary
between the god and humankind, represented Ptah in particular. He was depicted
inhuman form, tightly wrapped like a mummy, with a shaven head or wearing
a close fitting skull cap, holding the scepter of dominion composed of
a 'djed' staff topped by the Ankh (life) symbol.

According to one tradition (Memphite
creation myth) Ptah was the primary motive force in creation, thinking
and speaking the cosmos into existence (elsewhere he was said to have created
the cosmos out of mud.) In this tradition, propagated by his priesthood,
it was Ptah who was pre-eminent among the gods. He was said to have invented
the 'opening of the mouth' ceremony, restoring the faculties of life to
corpse by performing it on the mouths of gods when he created them.


He incorporated the principal
gods of creation, death, and after-life. Represented as a mummified king.



God of the deceased's intestines


Ra (Re)

Egyptian sun and creator god.
He was usually depicted in human form with a falcon head, crowned with
the sun disc encircled by the uraeus (the sacred cobra). The sun itself
was taken to be either his body or his eye. He was said to traverse the
sky each day in a solar barque and pass through the underworld each night
on another solar barque to reappear in the east each morning. His principal
cult center was Heliopolis ("sun city") near modern Cairo. Ra was also
considered to be an underworld god, closely associated in this respect
with Osiris. In this capacity he was depicted as a ram-headed figure.

By the third millennium B.C. Ra's
prominence had already become such that the Pharaohs took to stylizing
themselves as "sons of Ra." After death, the Egyptian monarch was said
to ascend into the sky to join the entourage of the sun god. According
to the Heliopolitan cosmology, Ra was said to have created himself, either
out of a primordial lotus blossom or on the mound that emerged from the
primeval waters. He then created Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture), who in
turn engendered the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut. Ra was said
to have created humankind from his own tears and the gods Hu (authority)
and Sia (mind) from blood drawn from his own penis. Ra was often combined
with other deities to enhance the prestige of the later, as in Ra-Atum
or in the formula "Ra in Osiris, Osiris in Ra."

Resheph (Reshpu, Reshef)

A god of war and thunder. He was
of Syrian origin.


Sarapis (Serapis)

A god supposedly imported during
the Ptolemacic period in Egypt. Later, a deity worshipped throughout the
Roman Empire. Sarapis was supposedly the Greek form of Osiris-Apis, a deity
who combined the attributes of the bull god Apis (or Greek Zeus) and the
underworld god Osiris. To this the Hellensitic rulers of Egypt added characteristics
taken from Greek deities such as Zeus, Dionysos, Hades, Helios and Asklepios
to create a universal god. Depicted inhuman form with curly hair and crowned
with a basket-shaped headdress known as a kalathos.

Sepa (Sep)

An Egyptian chthonic god.

The Egyptian god of oil and wine

Set (Seth, Setekh, Setesh, Seti,
Sutekh, Setech, Sutech)

Egyptian god of Chaos who embodied
the principles of hostility, if not outright evil. Early in Egyptian Mythology
he was spoken with reverence as a god of storms and wind. Later on, after
his battle with Horus, he was associated with foreign lands and was the
adversary of the god Osiris. Set was usually depicted in human form with
the head of aardvark. He was sometimes represented in entire animal form
with a body similar to that of a greyhound. He was said to be the son of
Nut and Geb or Nut and Ra, and the brother of Osiris, Isis and brother-husband
of Nephthys. He was more commonly associated with the foreign, Semitic
goddess Astarte and Anat. Despite his reputation he had an important sanctuary
at Ombos in Upper Egypt, his reputed birthplace and had cults mostly in
the Nile delta.

For a time, during the third millennium
BC, Set replaced Horus as the tutelary deity of the Pharaohs. However,
when the story of Set's murder of Osiris got and the subsequent war with
Horus got around, Horus was restored to his original status. The war with
Horus lasted eighty years, during which Set tore out he left eye of his
advisory and Horus tore out Set's foreleg and testicles. Horus eventually
emerged victorious, or was deemed the victor by a council of the gods,
and thus became the rightful ruler of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Set was forced to return the eye of Horus and was either castrated or killed.
In some versions Set then went to live with the sun god Ra, where he became
the voice of thunder. In the Book of the Dead, Set was refereed to as the
"lord of the northern sky" and held responsible for storms and cloudy weather.
Set protected Ra during his night voyage through the underworld On the
other hand, Set was a peril for ordinary Egyptians, he was said to seize
the souls of the unwary. Among the animals sacred to Set were the desert
oryx, boar, the hippopotamus as a destroyer of boats and planted fields,
and the crocodile. The pig was the ultimate taboo in Set's cult. The Greeks
later equated him with their Typhon.

Shu (Su; Greek Sos)

Primordial Egyptian god of air
and supporter of the sky. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Shu was, with
his sister-wife Tefnut, one of the first deities created by the sun god
Atum, either from his semen or from the mucus of his nostrils. Tefnut then
became Shu's consort, giving birth to the sky goddess Nut and the earth
god Geb. Shu separated Geb and Nut (heaven and earth) by interposing himself
between them. Depicted in human form wearing an ostrich feather, with his
arms raised to support the goddess Nut above the supine form of Geb.

Sobek (Greek Suchos)

Egyptian crocodile god and son
of Neith. Sobek symbolized the might of the Egyptian Pharaohs. At Ra's
command, He performed tasks such as catching with a net the four sons of
Horus as they emerged from the waters in a lotus bloom. Sobek was admired
and feared for his ferocity. Depicted as a crocodile or in human form with
the head of a crocodile, crowned either by a pair of plumes or sometimes
by a combination of the solar disk and the uraeus. His cult was widespread.
Faiyum was particularly noted as a center of his worship and at least one
town came to be "Crocodilopolis" by the Greeks. Gebelein, Kom Ombo and
Thebes in Upper Egypt were other centers of his cult.

Sokar (Seker; Greek Socharis, Sokaris)

Egyptian funerary god of the Memphis
necropolis. Depicted in human form with a hawk's head. As early as the
Old Kingdom, Sokar came to be regarded as a manifestation of the dead Osiris
at Abydos in Upper Egypt. Also in the Old Kingdom, he came to be combined
with Ptah as Ptah-Sokar, in which form he took the lioness goddess Sekhmet
as his consort. In the Middle Kingdom, the three were sometimes merged
in the form Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Sokar was associated with the manufacture
of various objects used in embalming and in funerary rituals. He became
a god of the craftsman working in the necropolis at Memphis and ultimately
a patron deity of the necropolis itself. He also played a prominent role
at Thebes where he was depicted on the royal tombs. An important annual
festival was held in his honor at Thebes. The festival celebrated the resurrection
of Osiris in the form of Sokar and the continuity of the Egyptian monarchy.
At this festival his image was carried in an elaborate boat known as the

Sopedu (Sopdu)

Egyptian god of the eastern frontier
(eastern desert). Depicted either in the form of a falcon or as a Asiatic
warrior with the Bedouin crowned with tall plumes. He was also the god
of the Sinai Peninsula and of the turquoise mines in the Sinai. In the
Pyramid Texts he took on an astral aspect. Impregnating Isis in her manifestation
as the star Sirius, whose appearance in July heralded the annual inundation
of the Nile. Isis subsequently gave birth to the composite deity Sopedu-Horus.
His primary cult center was at Saft el-Henna in the northeastern Nile delta.


Tatenen (Tathen, Tatjenen, Tanen,
Tenen, Ten)

"Exalted Earth." Primordial Egyptian
god who personified the fertile silt of the Nile. Originally an independent
god at Memphis, he was combined with Ptah in his aspect as a creator god.
In this form he took on an a androgynous form and was given he epithet
'father of the gods.' He was usually depicted in human form with ram's
horns and wearing a feathered crown. As a vegetation god, he could be portrayed
with green skin.

Thoth (Thot, Thout; Egyptian Djhowtey,
Djehuti, Tehuti, Zehuti)

Egyptian moon god. Over time,
he developed as a god of wisdom, and came to be associated with magic,
music, medicine, geometry, drawing, writing, surveying and astronomy. He
was the inventor of the spoken and written word; credited with the invention
of geometry, medicine and astronomy. He was also the scribe of the gods
and patron of all scribes. Thoth was the measurer of the earth and counter
of the stars as well as keeper and recorder of all knowledge including
the Book of the Dead. Thoth was generally depicted in human form with the
head of an ibis, wearing a crown consisting of a crescent moon topped by
a moon disk. He could also be depicted as an ibis or a baboon which were
both sacred to him. His principal sanctuary was at Hermopolis (Khmunu)
in the Nile delta region.

Thoth served as an arbiter among
the gods. In the Osirian legend, he protected Isis during her pregnancy
and healed her son Horus when Set tore out his left eye. Thoth was later
identified with the Greek god Hermes in the form of Hermes Trismegistos
- "Hermes the thrice great" - in which form he remained popular in medieval
magic and alchemy. Thoth was also a god of the underworld, where he served
as a clerk who recorded the judgments on the souls of the dead. Alternatively,
it was Thoth himself who weighed the hearts of the dead against the Feather
of Truth in the Hall of the Two Truths.



An Egyptian plant-god.


Wepwawet (Upuaut; Greek Ophois)

"Opener of Ways." Egyptian jackal
god. Wepwawet had a dual roe as a god of war and of the funerary cult ad
could be said to "open the way" both for the armies for the Pharaoh and
for the spirits of the dead. He originated as a god of Upper Egypt, but
his cult had spread throughout Egypt by the time of the Old Kingdom. Depicted
as a jackal or in human form with the head of a jackal, often holding the
'shedshed,' a standard which led the Pharaoh to victory in war and on which
the Pharaoh was said to ascend into the sky after death. Despite his origin
in Upper Egypt, in inscription said that he was born in the sanctuary of
the goddess Wadjet at Buto in the Nile delta. Another inscription identified
him with Horus and thus extension with Pharaoh. Wepwawet also symbolized
the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. In his capacity as a funerary
deity, he used his adze to break open the mouth of the deceased in the
"Opening of the Mouth" ceremony, which ensured that the person would have
the enjoyment of all his faculties in the afterlife. At Abydos, the 'procession
of Wepwawet' opened the mysteries of Osiris as a god of the dead.

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